4 Is: A Conceptual Framework to Drive Curriculum Development in Transnational Foundation Years in Mainland China

  • Mattia Miani University of Nottingham Ningbo China
  • Miao Wang University of Nottingham Ningbo China
  • Shih-Ching (Susan) Picucci-Huang University of Nottingham Ningbo China


In this article, the authors aim to propose a conceptual framework based on four principles - integration, inspirational teaching, inclusiveness, and innovation - named the 4 Is. The framework, developed through reflective practice, addresses the current literature gap on curriculum development in foundation years and a number of challenges faced by foundation programmes in transnational universities in China. The framework is presented both in narrative and visual forms, the latter taking the shape of a dandelion flower to signify the non-hierarchical and flexible nature of the dimensions characterising each principle. The authors will discuss examples of curriculum changes inspired by the framework that they carried out in a foundation year in a transnational campus in Mainland China.


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